August 2023

Aqueduct 4.0: Updated Decision-Relevant Global Water Risk Indicators

Samantha Kuzma, Marc F.P. Bierkens, Shivani Lakshman, Tianyi Luo, Liz Saccoccia, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja and Rens Van Beek
Originally published by
World Resources Institute

This technical note serves as the main reference for the updated Aqueduct™️ 4.0 water risk framework. It details the data and methodology used to create 13 indicators of global water risk. Indicators reflect both current conditions and future projections of water supply, demand, stress, and more. This paper also describes how water risks can be aggregated into categories of risk, such as physical and quality, as well as administrative risk.

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November 2023
Bluerisk, Bonneville Environmental Foundation, LimnoTech and World Resources Institute